Like in most languages, the verb to be is irregular in practically all its forms, tenses and moods.
The complications are twofold:
Compare:Enclitic εἰμί and its regularly stressed compounds
πάρειμι to be present,
ἄπειμι, to be absent, away (from),
σύνειμι to be together with.
ὁ Δικαιόπολις ὁ τοῦ Ξανθίου δεσπότης ἐστίν. ἐν ᾦ δὲ πάρεστιν ὁ δεσπότης πονεῖ ὁ Ξανθίας. νῦν δὲ (but right now) ἄπεστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις καὶ οὐ πονεῖ ὁ δοῦλος, ἥσυχος καθεύδει ὑπὸ τῷ δένδρῶ.
In class, roll-call.
Παῦλος. - πάρειμι
Μέλιττα; - πάρειμι
Φιδίας; - ἀπεστιν.
τί οὐ πάρεστι; - μάλα κάμνει
οἱ δεσπόται σύνεισι τοῖς δοῦλοις ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς. (if not, no work gets done)
|he, she, it is|
|1. movable ν|
|normal form||μακρός ἐστι καὶ χαλεπός|
|if followed by a vowel||ἔστιν αὐτουργός|
|before a punctuation mark (full stop, comma...)||αὐτουργός ἐστιν.|
|2. enclitic ἐστιν|
| Enclitics lean on preceding word for strength and stress.|
In (almost) all cases they are unstressed and have no written accent.
|Except as: 1st word||ἔστιν αὐτουργός|
| and after negative οὐκ
as well as a few others.
|Your choice (or your tutor's):|
There is a tree in the field. ἔστι δένδρον ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ|
I am in the field: εἰμὶ ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ. Or, emphatic: ἐγώ μέν εἰμι ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ.
The oxen are in the field but Xanthias is not there: οἱ μὲν βόες εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ, ὁ δὲ Ξανθίας οὐ πάρεστι. οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ, ἀλλὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ. καθεύδει γὰρ ἥσυχος.
There is a house in the field. There are also trees (!). But there are no stones. ἔστιν οἶκος ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ, ἔστι καὶ δένδρα. Ἀλλὰ οὐκ εἰσὶ λίθοι.
We're humans, we're not oxen (Even if some of us are as strong and/or as dumb as them). ἄνθρωποί ἐσμεν, οὐκ ἐσμὲν βόες.
Are you (pl.) uneasy/not secure? Are you not strong? ἆρ' οὐχ ἥσυχοί ἐστε; οὐκ ἐστὲ ἰσχυροί;